General Calibration

Each oil has a specific response factor to fluorescent light. Therefor, calibrating against your target oil is recommended for best results. For example, if your sample is produced water, you will want to prepare your calibration solution with site-specific crude oil.
The answer is illustrated in the Linear Calibration screen. After calibration, you will need to check the linearity. As an example, if you calibrated the instrument to 100 ppm, to verify the linearity, you should dilute the 100 ppm standard solution by half, and see if it reads about half. If not, the 100 ppm is not linear, and you need to recalibrate with a lower concentration calibration solution.
If your 50% dilution reads about half, but your 200 ppm standard solution reads low, it means that your linear range is between 100 and 200. You can make standard solutions between 100 and 200 to learn the actual linear range.
The CheckPOINT™ is a solid standard, which allows you to verify calibration without preparing standard solutions. Your first calibration must be done with liquid standard solutions. After the initial calibration (and you have verified the linearity of your calibration curve), insert the CheckPOINT™ and follow your manual’s instructions for making readings and adjustments. Use the included Allen wrench to adjust the screw. We recommend setting the reading in the second half of your calibration range.
Under normal and recommended operating conditions, the monitor will display negative measurements when no water is present. The reason for this is that the air present in the flow cell without water has less background fluorescence than water. This is a normal situation; however, the analog output, which will be 4-20 mA, will be limited to 4 mA or 0 ppm, if so programmed, even when no water is present. Thus, the remote indication will be 0 ppm in the event of no water flow.

The monitor will also display negative numbers if the measurement is less than the value of the blank. Although negative concentrations are only theoretical, a display of a negative concentration is very important diagnostic information for our monitor since fluorescence is never measured from an absolute zero, but in reference to a defined zero. Thus, a negative measurement in the presence of water indicates that the defined zero, which the customer selects, is not appropriate. If the display was truncated to zero, this situation, which will occur in water obtained from natural sources, will never be detected. It could also cause false measurements from the monitor if not corrected.

In most applications, the online monitor or laboratory analyzer can display measurements according to a certain regulatory measurement method results if a correlation is developed between samples measured by our equipment and the regulatory measurement method.  Our manuals have instructions on how to develop the correlation calibration.

TD-500D

(Discontinued)

EPA 1664A is a gravimetric method, and the procedure requires evaporation of solvent. During the evaporation process, some oil compounds evaporate along with the solvent, resulting in lower readings. If EPA 1664A is the standard method you need to comply to, correlation is the key. Any two different methods will produce different numerical readings. Measurements from a TD-500D/TD-3100 can be well correlated to the EPA method. After the correlation is in place, the TD-500D/TD-3100 can consistently predict results from an EPA lab.
Yes, because the TD-500D is battery powered, it can be operated anywhere.
No, the TD-500D is not intrinsically safe; however, because samples are brought to it for analysis, the TD-500D is typically operated in laboratories or other general purpose areas.
The TD-500D can typically make well over 1000 measurements with a set of batteries.
No, the TD-500D uses four standard type AAA alkaline batteries.
No, we do not recommend using rechargeable batteries in the analyzer since they may leak or damage the analyzer.
Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments or our local dealer will evaluate your application and advise the recommended cuvette type.  In some cases you may be recommended to have both sizes of cuvettes to determine which cuvette type is best for your application.
No, the TD-500D is not sensitive to BTEX compounds.  If BTEX compounds need to be measured, then our TD-3100 Laboratory Fluorometer can be used.
No, the TD-500D is not sensitive to aromatic solvents, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, or low concentrations of diesel fuel.  Our TD-3100 Laboratory Fluorometer can be used to measure these fuels and solvents.
We do not recommend the TD-500D for measuring low concentrations of lubricating oils in water because it is not sensitive towards these oils.  We recommend our TD-3100 Laboratory Fluorometer for these applications.  High concentrations of lubricating oils in water possibly could be measured by the TD-500D, but the TD-3100 is a better choice because it can also measure low concentrations of most lubricating oils.
No. In general, the No Solvent Method is not sensitive enough to be used for measuring refined petroleum products on the TD-500D.  The exception to this is #6 fuel oil, also called Bunker C or heavy fuel oil.  The No Solvent Method is designed for typical black crude oils.
When evaluating the calibration on a TD-500D, you need to evaluate the sensitivity as well as the linearity. The sensitivity is displayed on the diagnostic screen as the value of the %FS-Std. As long as the %FS-Std is greater than 2, the sensitivity is sufficient for the calibration. You should also check the linearity of the calibration. This is easily done by measuring a diluted calibration standard. A measurement close to the expected diluted concentration will confirm linearity.
If the signal from the calibration standard exceeds the allowed measurement of the TD-500D, then this message will appear.  You can correct this by A) calibrating at a lower concentration, and/or B) using a smaller cuvette size, and/or C) switch to a less sensitive measurement channel.
A %FS-Std less than 2 indicates that the calibration solution has insufficient response for reasonable measurements.  To increase the response, you can A) calibrate at a higher concentration, and/or B) use a larger size cuvette, and/or C) switch to a more sensitive measurement channel.

TD-3100

(Discontinued)

Yes, the TD-3100 by itself does not have the optical kit installed.  Various optical kits for measuring different ranges of hydrocarbons are available.
Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments or its local dealer will recommend the appropriate optical kit for your application if we are provided with the application details.  In some cases multiple optical kits may be recommended.
Yes, there is a unique lamp for each optical kit.
The TD-3100 comes with a power adapter that converts AC power to DC power.  A standard 12 VDC car battery cannot be used to power the TD-3100 without the use a voltage regulation device between the battery and the TD-3100.
For most applications, the TD-3100 can be initially calibrated with a calibration solution.  Then the CheckPOINT™ Solid Standard can be set to a response similar to calibration solution.  Subsequently, the TD-3100 calibration is checked with the CheckPOINT™ Solid Standard and, if needed, recalibrated with the CheckPOINT™ Solid Standard.
Although the possible %Sens value can range from 1 to 99, practical measurements and applications will produce %Sens values between 4 and 70.
A message of maximum sensitivity during an attempted calibration means that the TD-3100 reached the maximum sensitivity without the calibration solution producing sufficient measurement.  Usually this happens when trying to calibrate either with a calibration solution that does not fluoresce or a calibration solution that is not suitable for the optical configuration presently being used in the TD-3100.  A condition of the lamp not being installed properly can also produce this symptom.  Please check the optical configuration and/or lamp.
There can be two causes of this problem.  A)  The blank that was introduced into the TD-3100 may have been contaminated.  In this case, try recalibrating with a blank that is known not to be contaminated.  B)  If the response of the calibration solution is quenched or beyond the practical measurement range, then this symptom can occur.  If dilutions of the calibration standard produce greater fluorescence response than the calibration standard, this is evidence of quenching.  If quenching is occurring, you can calibrate at a lower concentration, use the attenuator plate(s), and/or change the optical configuration.
You should first check that the optical filters are correctly installed.  The excitation optical filter must go in the excitation filter location.  The emission optical filter must go in the emission filter location.  If you reverse the filters, a value will produced by the TD-3100, but that value will be the same for all concentrations.  Also, you should check that the optical configuration is suitable for the hydrocarbons you wish to measure.
Yes, they do because they are affected by humidity.  You should operate your TD-3100 in a location with humidity control.  If you need to store the TD-3100 for a long period of time, we suggest you remove the optical filters, place them in their original container, and store them in a location with the lowest humidity possible.  The optical filters are considered long-term consumable items.
The No Solvent Method was originally designed for the TD-500D Oil In Water Analyzer.  You may be able to use it on the TD-3100 if you use the cuvettes and cuvette adapter for the No Solvent Method and are using the crude oil optical kit.  The No Solvent Method cannot be used to measure refined petroleum products or gas condensates on the TD-3100.
We recommend that the cuvette be rinsed twice with the new solution to be measured and then be filled up a third time for the actual measurement.  Rinsing twice will flush out any previous solution remaining in the cuvette.

TD-4100XD and TD-4100XDC

The E09 TD-4100XD and E09 TD-4100XDC have four alarm relays that you can configure with the monitor keypad. You can control which alarms report to each relay, with the capability of having multiple alarms report to the same relay. Each relay has terminations for both normally open and normally closed signals. We recommend that you set the monitor’s System alarm to report to at least one alarm relay.
Although the E09 online monitors allow for nonlinear calibrations, with more than two calibration points, for most direct calibration applications it is generally not necessary to use more than two calibration points. More than two calibration points would only be needed if you know that the calibration range is nonlinear.
There are two points to this answer: A) The linear or dynamic range and B) The maximum fluorescence measurement capability of the monitor.

A) Unless you are specifically using a nonlinear calibration, you want to limit the measurement range of the monitor to the linear range where change in fluorescence is linearly proportional to concentration. The linear range varies depending upon the monitor parameters, monitor configuration, water source, and hydrocarbon type; however, Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments generally configures the monitor to operate in the linear range for your application. If your application involves measurement over a dynamic range, then a nonlinear calibration is necessary. The absolute limit of the monitor would be the dynamic measurement range.

B) Measurements are also limited by the maximum fluorescence measurement capacity of the monitor, which for the E09 series is 10,000 RFU (relative fluorescence units). If a measurement is beyond 10,000 RFU, then OVER is displayed on the monitor’s screen.

Should this situation happen, the displayed concentration measurement will decrease as the concentration increases.
This situation is common. Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments configures its monitors to avoid situations like this, but it is possible in certain applications or situations.  The decrease in fluorescence measurement (concentration) is caused by the light entering the sample but not being able to uniformly penetrate it.  This situation is also called quenching.  Extreme situations may cause negative measurements.  Because this phenomenon can happen over extremely wide concentration ranges, Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments does not recommend a monitor for applications where the concentrations can momentarily range from low ppm to percentage levels of hydrocarbon in water.  Indeed, we are not aware of any measurement technologies that can linearly measure from ppm to percentage levels of hydrocarbons in water.